Romane & Erzählungen

Environmental Policy and Law in Romania – Towards EU-Accession PDF

Territories outside Europe and its immediate surroundings are not shown. The EU’s predecessor, the European Economic Community, was founded with the Inner Six member states in 1958, when the Treaty of Rome came into force. In December 1995, the Madrid European Council revised the membership criteria to include conditions for member country integration through the appropriate adjustment of its administrative structures: since it is important that European Community legislation be reflected in national legislation, it is critical that the revised national legislation be implemented effectively through appropriate administrative and judicial structures. Finally, and technically outside the Environmental Policy and Law in Romania – Towards EU-Accession PDF criteria, comes the further requirement that all prospective members must enact legislation to bring their laws into line with the body of European law built up over the history of the Union, known as the acquis communautaire.


Författare: Christine Krüger.

Today the accession process follows a series of formal steps, from a pre-accession agreement to the ratification of the final accession treaty. Before a country applies for membership it typically signs an association agreement to help prepare the country for candidacy and eventual membership. Most countries do not meet the criteria to even begin negotiations before they apply, so they need many years to prepare for the process. An association agreement helps prepare for this first step.

In the case of the Western Balkans, a special process, the Stabilisation and Association Process exists to deal with the special circumstances there. When a country formally applies for membership, the Council asks the Commission to prepare an opinion on the country’s readiness to begin negotiations. If the Council agrees to open negotiations the screening process then begins. The Commission and candidate country examine its laws and those of the EU and determine what differences exist. The Council then recommends opening negotiations on „chapters“ of law that it feels there is sufficient common ground to have constructive negotiations. Population and GDP per capita of individual EU member states compared with those of non-member states in Europe.

A chapter is said to be closed when both sides have agreed it has been implemented sufficiently, however it can still be re-opened if the Commission feels that the candidate has fallen out of compliance. These serve as a basis for the Council to make decisions on negotiations or their extension to other candidates. Once the negotiations are complete a treaty of accession will be signed, which must then be ratified by all of the member states of the Union, as well as the institutions of the Union, and the candidate country. Once this has been completed it will join the Union on the date specified in the treaty. The entire process, from application for membership to membership has typically taken about a decade, although some countries, notably Sweden, Finland, and Austria have been faster, taking only a few years. The following is an example of an accession process—Estonia’s path to membership from the 2004 enlargement. EU has built up that the acceding state must adopt.

This outline also includes integration steps taken by the accession country after it attains membership. Recognition from EU in same month. Enlargement has been one of the EU’s most successful foreign policies, yet has equally suffered from considerable opposition from the start. The reasons for the first member states to apply, and for them to be accepted, were primarily economic while the second enlargement was more political. The southern Mediterranean countries had just emerged from dictatorships and wanted to secure their democratic systems through the EEC, while the EEC wanted to ensure the same thing and that their southern neighbours were stable and aligned to NATO. European Communities and European Union depending on date.

In 1962, Spain, ruled by the military dictator Francisco Franco, issued its first attempt to join the European Communities. The Community did see some loss of territory due to the decolonialisation occurring in their era. Algeria, which was an integral part of France, had a special relationship with the Community. Algeria gained independence on 5 July 1962 and hence left the Community. The United Kingdom, which had refused to join as a founding member, changed its policy following the Suez crisis and applied to be a member of the Communities.

Other EEC members were also inclined to British membership on those grounds. Once de Gaulle had left office, the door to enlargement was once again opened. The EEC economy had also slowed down and British membership was seen as a way to revitalise the community. Territories outside Europe and its immediate surroundings are not shown. The EU’s predecessor, the European Economic Community, was founded with the Inner Six member states in 1958, when the Treaty of Rome came into force. In December 1995, the Madrid European Council revised the membership criteria to include conditions for member country integration through the appropriate adjustment of its administrative structures: since it is important that European Community legislation be reflected in national legislation, it is critical that the revised national legislation be implemented effectively through appropriate administrative and judicial structures.

Finally, and technically outside the Copenhagen criteria, comes the further requirement that all prospective members must enact legislation to bring their laws into line with the body of European law built up over the history of the Union, known as the acquis communautaire. Today the accession process follows a series of formal steps, from a pre-accession agreement to the ratification of the final accession treaty. Before a country applies for membership it typically signs an association agreement to help prepare the country for candidacy and eventual membership. Most countries do not meet the criteria to even begin negotiations before they apply, so they need many years to prepare for the process.

An association agreement helps prepare for this first step. In the case of the Western Balkans, a special process, the Stabilisation and Association Process exists to deal with the special circumstances there. When a country formally applies for membership, the Council asks the Commission to prepare an opinion on the country’s readiness to begin negotiations. If the Council agrees to open negotiations the screening process then begins. The Commission and candidate country examine its laws and those of the EU and determine what differences exist.

The Council then recommends opening negotiations on „chapters“ of law that it feels there is sufficient common ground to have constructive negotiations. Population and GDP per capita of individual EU member states compared with those of non-member states in Europe. A chapter is said to be closed when both sides have agreed it has been implemented sufficiently, however it can still be re-opened if the Commission feels that the candidate has fallen out of compliance. These serve as a basis for the Council to make decisions on negotiations or their extension to other candidates.

Once the negotiations are complete a treaty of accession will be signed, which must then be ratified by all of the member states of the Union, as well as the institutions of the Union, and the candidate country. Once this has been completed it will join the Union on the date specified in the treaty. The entire process, from application for membership to membership has typically taken about a decade, although some countries, notably Sweden, Finland, and Austria have been faster, taking only a few years. The following is an example of an accession process—Estonia’s path to membership from the 2004 enlargement. EU has built up that the acceding state must adopt. This outline also includes integration steps taken by the accession country after it attains membership.