Jump to navigation Jump to search „Fichte“ redirects here. Fichte was born in Rammenau, Johann Gottlieb Fichte’s Sämmtliche Werke, Vol. 1 PDF Lusatia. The son of a ribbon weaver, he came of peasant stock which had lived in the region for many generations.
Författare: Johann Gottlieb Fichte.
The family was noted in the neighborhood for its probity and piety. Christian Fichte, Johann Gottlieb’s father, married somewhat above his station. Young Fichte received the rudiments of his education from his father. He showed remarkable ability from an early age, and it was owing to his reputation among the villagers that he gained the opportunity for a better education than he otherwise would have received.
The story runs that the Freiherr von Militz, a country landowner, arrived too late to hear the local pastor preach. He was, however, informed that a lad in the neighborhood would be able to repeat the sermon practically verbatim. Fichte was placed in the family of Pastor Krebel at Niederau near Meissen and there received thorough grounding in the classics. From this time onward, Fichte saw little of his parents. In 1780, he began study at the theology seminary of University of Jena. He was transferred a year later to study at the Leipzig University.
Fichte seems to have supported himself at this period of bitter poverty and hard struggle. During the years 1784 to 1788, he supported himself in a precarious way as tutor in various Saxon families. In early 1788, he returned to Leipzig in the hope of finding a better employment, but eventually he had to settle for a much less promising position with the family of an innkeeper in Zurich. From Zurich, Fichte returned to Leipzig in May 1790. In the spring of 1791, he obtained a tutorship at Warsaw in the house of a Polish nobleman. The situation, however, quickly proved disagreeable and he was released. In October 1793, he was married in Zurich, where he remained the rest of the year.
Stirred by the events and principles of the French Revolution, he wrote and anonymously published two pamphlets which led to him being seen as a devoted defender of liberty of thought and action and an advocate of political changes. After weathering a couple of academic storms, he was finally dismissed from Jena in 1799 as a result of a charge of atheism. Since all the German states except Prussia had joined in the cry against him, he was forced to go to Berlin. There he associated himself with the Schlegels, Schleiermacher, Schelling and Tieck.
In April 1800, through the introduction of Hungarian writer Ignaz Aurelius Fessler, he was initiated into Freemasonry in the Lodge Pythagoras of the Blazing Star where he was elected minor warden. At first Fichte was a warm admirer of Fessler, and was disposed to aid him in his proposed Masonic reform. But later he became Fessler’s bitter opponent. European economic relations, and a political proposal for reforming them. In 1805, he was appointed to a professorship in Erlangen. The disaster at Jena in 1806, in which Napoleon completely crushed the Prussian army, drove him to Königsberg for a time, but he returned to Berlin in 1807 and continued his literary activity.
He became a professor of the new university at Berlin founded in 1810. In mimicking Kant’s difficult style, his critics argued that Fichte produced works that were barely intelligible. Fichte did not endorse Kant’s argument for the existence of noumena, of „things in themselves“, the supra-sensible reality beyond the categories of direct human perception. Fichte who, because the thing-in-itself had just been discredited, at once prepared a system without any thing-in-itself. Arthur Schopenhauer, Parerga and Paralipomena, Vol. Our whole age is imbued with a formal striving. This is what led us to disregard congeniality and to emphasize symmetrical beauty, to prefer conventional rather than sincere social relations.