Roman emperor from 308 to 324. Born to a Dacian peasant family in Moesia Superior, Licinius accompanied his close childhood friend, the future emperor Galerius, sextus Valerius II PDF the Persian expedition in 298. Upon his return to the east Galerius elevated Licinius to the rank of Augustus in the West on November 11, 308 his immediate command were the Balkan provinces of Illyricum, Thrace and Pannonia.
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An alliance between Maximinus and Maxentius forced the two remaining emperors to enter into a formal agreement with each other. Daia in the meantime decided to attack Licinius. Leaving Syria with 70,000 men, he reached Bithynia, although harsh weather he encountered along the way had gravely weakened his army. In April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, which was held by Licinius‘ troops.
Undeterred, he took the town after an eleven-day siege. Given that Constantine had already crushed his rival Maxentius in 312, the two men decided to divide the Roman world between them. As a result of this settlement, Licinius became sole Augustus in the East, while his brother-in-law, Constantine, was supreme in the West. In 314, a civil war erupted between Licinius and Constantine, in which Constantine used the pretext that Licinius was harbouring Senecio, whom Constantine accused of plotting to overthrow him. Over the next ten years, the two imperial colleagues maintained an uneasy truce. Constantine wasted no time going on the offensive. Licinius’s fleet of 350 ships was defeated by Constantine’s fleet in 323.
After defeating Daia, he had put to death Flavius Severianus, the son of the emperor Severus, as well as Candidianus, the son of Galerius. As part of Constantine’s attempts to decrease Licinius’s popularity, he actively portrayed his brother-in-law as a pagan supporter. In Classical Latin, Licinius‘ name would be inscribed as GAIVS VALERIVS LICINIANVS LICINIVS AVGVSTVS. Handbook to life in ancient Rome. The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, Vol. The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.
L’Empire Romain en mutation: des Sévères à Constantin, 192-337. Internet History Sourcebooks Project, Fordham University, . Kohn, George Childs, Dictionary Of Wars, Revised Edition, pg 398. Leithart, Defending Constantine: The Twilight of an Empire and the Dawn of Christendom. James Richard Gearey, „The Persecution of Licinius“. MA thesis, University of Calgary, 1999, Chapter 4.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Licinius. Italics indicates a co-emperor, while underlining indicates a usurper. This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Roman civil engineer, author, and politician of the late 1st century AD. In AD 70, Frontinus participated in the suppression of the Rhineland revolt, and later recorded that he received the surrender of 70,000 Lingones. Nerva, an office only conferred upon persons of very high standing. He was also a member of the College of Augurs.
The following year Frontinus held a second consulship as suffect in February, with Trajan as his colleague, and two years later he was made consul ordinarius with Trajan. Birley notes, „This exceptional honour underlines the high regard in which he was held, and suggests, further, that Trajan had a debt to repay. Due to a lack of either a titulus honorarius or sepulcralis, there is no outline of Frontinus‘ life, the names of his parents, or of his wife. Some details can be inferred from chance mentions: He is thought to be of Narbonese origins, and originally of the equestrian class. Remains of aqueducts Aqua Claudia and Aqua Anio Novus, integrated into the Aurelian Wall as a gate in 271 AD. Frontinus’s chief work is De aquaeductu, in two books, an official report to the emperor on the state of the aqueducts of Rome. It presents a history and description of the water-supply of Rome, including the laws relating to its use and maintenance.
One of the first jobs he undertook when he was appointed water commissioner was to prepare maps of the system so that he could assess their condition before undertaking their maintenance. He says that many had been neglected and were not working at their full capacity. He was especially concerned by diversion of the supply by unscrupulous farmers and tradesmen, among many others. They would insert pipes into the channel of the aqueducts to tap the supply. Distribution of the water depended in a complex way on its height entering the city, the quality of the water, and its rate of discharge.
Thus, poor-quality water would be sent for irrigation, gardens, or flushing, while only the best would be reserved for drinking water. Intermediate-quality water would be used for the many baths and fountains. He was very concerned by leaks in the system, especially those in the underground conduits, which were difficult to locate and mend, a problem still faced by water engineers today. The aqueducts above ground needed care to ensure that the masonry was kept in good condition, especially those running on arched superstructures. It was, he said, essential to keep trees at a distance so that their roots would not damage the structures. Frontinus also wrote a theoretical treatise on military science, which is lost.