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Status und Prestige in der Hallstattkultur PDF

It is named for its type site, Hallstatt, a lakeside village in the Austrian Salzkammergut southeast of Salzburg, where there was a rich salt mine, and some 1,300 burials are known, many with fine artefacts. By the 6th century BC, it had expanded to include wide territories, falling into two zones, east and west, between them covering much of western and central Europe down to the Alps, and extending into northern Italy. Status und Prestige in der Hallstattkultur PDF of Britain and Iberia are included in the ultimate expansion of the culture. The culture was based on farming, but metal-working was considerably advanced, and by the end of the period long-range trade within the area and with Mediterranean cultures was economically significant.

Författare: Clara Schumann.
The social structure of the Hallstatt Culture has been much debated with a focus on the problems of big man systems, chiefdoms, or heritable aristocracies, while the potential and limitations of the identification of status symbols and prestige goods have been neglected. Therefore, a definition of status / prestige is followed by thoughts on their recognisability [unusual optics / haptics / material, sumptuous production, symbolic content]. The areas of research are the Lower Altmühl Valley, the Northern Alps and alpine foothills of Western Austria, the Kalenderberg Culture of Eastern Austria, and the Dolenjsko Group in Slovenia that are clearly distinct as to their material basis [grave construction, weapons, waggons, bronze and glass vessels, gold, costume, horse gear, tools, diadem, sceptre, spindle whorls etc.] and their research potential and imply very different horizontal and vertical subdivisions of the communities. Princely burials are mainly differentiated by the regionally and chronologically divergent characteristics of negotiating prestige, e. g. by means of gold and import finds. The settlement systems show more differences with special dynamics and hierarchies in the NW-Hallstatt Circle.

Eventually the excavation would yield 1,045 burials, although no settlement has yet been found. This may be covered by the later village, which has long occupied the whole narrow strip between the steep hillsides and the lake. Some 1,300 burials have been found, including around 2,000 individuals, with women and children but few infants. The community at Hallstatt was untypical of the wider, mainly agricultural, culture, as its booming economy exploited the salt mines in the area.

These had been worked from time to time since the Neolithic period, and in this period were extensively mined with a peak from the 8th to 5th centuries BC. In this period, people were cremated and buried in simple graves. Hallstatt C is characterized by the first appearance of iron swords mixed amongst the bronze ones. For the final phase, Hallstatt D, daggers, almost to the exclusion of swords, are found in western zone graves ranging from c. Major activity at the site appears to have finished about 500 BC, for reasons that are unclear.

Many Hallstatt graves were robbed, probably at this time. There was widespread disruption throughout the western Hallstatt zone, and the salt workings had by then become very deep. Much of the material from early excavations was dispersed, and is now found in many collections, especially German and Austrian museums, but the Hallstatt Museum in the town has the largest collection. It is probable that some if not all of this diffusion took place in a Celtic-speaking context. The Lepontic Celtic language inscriptions of the area show the language of the Golasecca culture was clearly Celtic making it probable that the 13th-century BC precursor language of at least the western Hallstatt was also Celtic or a precursor to it. Trade with Greece is attested by finds of Attic black-figure pottery in the elite graves of the late Hallstatt period.